Lunes, Mayo 23, 2011

THEORIES, FRAMEWORKS, AND MODELS

Nursing Informatics models is composed of 5 general models. 1st, Graves and Corcoran's model. 2nd, Schiwirian's model. 3rd, Turley's model. 4th, Data Information Knowledge (D-I-K) model. And the last is Benner's Novice to Expert model. The 2 specific informatics models are Philippine Health Ecosystem model and Shift Left model. 


According to GRAVES AND CORCORAN’S MODEL (1989) that nursing informatics as the linear progression, from data into information and knowledge. Management processing is integrated within each elements, depicting nursing informatics as the proper management of knowledge, from data as it is converted into information and knowledge.


According to SCHIWIRIAN’S MODEL (1986), nursing informatics involves identification of information needs, resolution of the needs, and attainment of nursing goals/objectives. Patricia Schwirian proposed a model intended to stimulate and guide systematic research in nursing informatics, model/framework that enables identification of significant information needs, that can foster research (somewhat similar to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs).


According to TURLEY’S MODEL (1996), nursing informatics is the intersection between the discipline-specific science (nursing) and the area of informatics. And in this model, there are 3 core components of informatics, namely Cognitive science, Information science, and Computer science.


In the DATA-INFORMATION-KNOWLEDGE MODEL, NI is a specialty that integrates nursing science, computer science and  information science to manage and communicate data, information, knowledge and wisdom into nursing practice (ANA). Nursing informatics is an evolving, dynamic process involving the conversion of data into information, and subsequently knowledge.


BENNER’S LEVEL OF EXPERTISE MODEL said that ževery nurse must be able to continuously exhibit the capability to acquire skills (in this case, computer literacy skills parallel with nursing knowledge), and then demonstrate specific skills beginning with the very first student experience. According BERNER, there are 5 levels of expertise:


  • žNovice – individuals with no experience of situations and related content in those situations where they are expected to perform tasks.
  • Advanced Beginner – marginally demonstrate acceptable performance having built on lessons learned in their expanding experience base; needs supervision.
  • Competent – enhanced mastery and the ability to cope with and manage many contingencies.
  • Proficient – evolution through continuous practice of skills, combined with professional experience and knowledge; individual who appreciates standards of practice as they apply in nursing informatics.
  • žExpert – individual with mastery of the concept and capacity to intuitively understand the situation and immediately target the problem with minimal effort or problem solving.
According to PHILIPPINE HEALTH CARE ECOSYSTEM, nursing informatics is a huge network that encompasses all the sectors of the health care delivery system – government agencies, health care facilities, practitioners, insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, academic institutions, and suppliers. And žthe government, different nursing associations and developmental agencies maintain and balance the network.
INTEL’S SHIFT LEFT MODEL:
  • Patient care shifts/progresses from a high quality delivery of lift through technology with increased costs (right side) into quality of life with minimal health costs.
  • Inverse relationship between quality of life and cost of care/day.
PATIENT MEDICAL RECORD INFORMATION MODEL (PMRI): BASIS OF EHR
  • žThe type and pattern of documentation in the patient record will be dependent on 3 interacting dimensions of health care:
    • Personal Health Dimension - personal health record maintained and controlled by the individual or family; nonclinical information.
    • Health Care Provider Dimension - promotes quality patient care, access to complete accurate patient data 24/7.
    • Population Health Dimension - information on the health of the population and the influences to health; helps stakeholders identify and track health threats, assess population health, create and monitor programs and services, and conduct research.
ABC CODES:
  • mechanism for coding integrative health interventions by clinician for administrative billing and insurance claims.
  • includes complementary and alternative medicine interventions and codes that map all NIC, CCC, and Omaha system interventions.
Perioperative Nursing Data Set (PNDS):
  • universal language for perioperative nursing practice and education; standerdize documentation of perioperative data in all perioperative settings.
  • diagnosis based on NANDA, interventions based on NIC, and outcomes based on NOC.
SNOMED CT:
  • core clinical terminology containing over 357,000 healthcare concepts with unique meanings and formal logic-based definitions organized into multiple hierarchies.

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